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State management and Redux

This article explains how the Sharetribe Web Template uses Redux for state management.

Table of Contents

What is Redux

The Sharetribe Web Template is single-page application (SPA) built using React. This means that the app needs to be able to render several different layouts (pages) depending on user interaction. State management is essential for this process. The template needs to know if a user has been authenticated or if it has received relevant data for the current page, and so on.

We use Redux for state management on the application level. You should read more about Redux before you start modifying queries to the Sharetribe API or creating new Page level elements.

In the following subtopics, we assume that you know the basics of Redux already.

Container components: Pages + TopbarContainer

The Sharetribe Web Template is aware of Redux state store, but other components and forms are purely presentational components. This makes it easier to customize UI components - you don't need to be aware of the complexity related to Redux setup when you just want to touch the behavior of some visual component. In those cases, you can just head to the src/components/ directory and you can see from there what props are available for each component when they are rendered.

Naturally, there is a need for higher level components which fetch new data and define what props are passed down to presentational components. In Redux terminology, those components are called Containers. The template has defined all the containers inside a directory called src/containers/. It contains all the pages and a special container for the top bar (TopbarContainer) since that is a very complex component and it is shared with almost every page. You can read more about differences between presentational and container components from this article written by Dan Abramov.

The actual container setup of a page level component can be found from the bottom of the component file. For example, src/containers/TransactionPage/TransactionPage.js connects itself to Redux store with mapStateToProps and mapDispatchToProps functions:

const TransactionPage = compose(
  connect(mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps),

Duck files

Inside any src/containers/<ComponentName> directory, you will also find a <ComponentName>.duck.js file. These files wrap all the other page-specific Redux concepts into a single file. Instead of writing action types, action creators and reducers in separate files (and spread them around our directory structure), the template tries to keep pages encapsulated. Page specific actions, store updates, and data fetches happen inside their respective directory - just look for a file whose name follows a pattern: <ComponentName>.duck.js. This pattern is just a simple concept of adding related things into a single file. Read more from the author's repository.

Global reducers

Some reducers are needed in several pages. These global reducers are defined inside src/ducks/ directory with their respective *.duck.js files. The most important global duck files are user.duck.js and marketplaceData.duck.js.

Setting up Redux

Container specific reducers are gathered and exported inside src/containers/reducers.js file and global reducers are exported respectively in a file src/ducks/index.js.

With those exports, we are able to create appReducer (src/reducers.js):

import { combineReducers } from 'redux';
import * as globalReducers from './ducks';
import * as pageReducers from './containers/reducers';

const appReducer = combineReducers({

appReducer is called by createReducer function, which is called inside of configureStore function (in src/store.js).

This setup creates a store structure that separates container specific state as well as global data by their reducer names. Together with Ducks module naming schema, this means that:

  • the state of the ListingPage can be found from state.ListingPage and
  • the state of the global user object can be found from state.user.

Advanced Redux concepts: thunks

One essential part of state management in the template is filling the Redux store with data fetched from the Sharetribe API. This is done with Redux Thunks, which is a Redux middleware to create asynchronous action creators.

As with every other Redux store actions, you can find Thunks inside *.duck.js files. For example, fetching listing reviews can be done with the following thunk function:

export const fetchReviews = listingId => (dispatch, getState, sdk) => {
  // Make store aware of a request to fetch reviews
  // Fetch reviews using Sharetribe SDK
  return sdk.reviews
      state: 'public',
      include: ['author', 'author.profileImage'],
      'fields.image': ['variants.square-small'],
    .then(response => {
      const reviews = denormalisedResponseEntities(response);
      // If fetch succeeds, make store aware of fetched data
    .catch(e => {
      // If fetch throws an error, save the error to the store (so that UI can react to it)